Genomewide comparison of DNA sequences between humans and chimpanzees

Authors: I. Ebersberger, D. Metzler , C. Schwarz, S. Pääbo
Journal: Am J Hum Genet. – 70(6):1490-7 (June 2002)

A total of 8,859 DNA sequences encompassing ~1.9 million base pairs of the chimpanzee genome were sequenced and compared to corresponding human DNA sequences. Although the average sequence difference is low (1.24%), the extent of changes is markedly different among sites and types of substitutions. Whereas ~15% of all CpG sites have experienced changes between humans and chimpanzees, owing to a 23-fold excess of transitions and a 7-fold excess of transversions, substitutions at other sites vary in frequency, between 0.1% and 0.5%. If the nucleotide diversity in the common ancestral species of humans and chimpanzees is assumed to have been about fourfold higher than in contemporary humans, all possible comparisons between autosomes and X and Y chromosomes result in estimates of the ratio between male and female mutation rates of ~3. Thus, the relative time spent in the male and female germlines may be a major determinant of the overall accumulation of nucleotide substitutions. However, since the extent of divergence differs significantly among autosomes, additional unknown factors must also influence the accumulation of substitutions in the human genome.

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Molecular analysis of a 11 700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile

Authors: M. Kuch, N. Rohland, J.L. Betancourt, C. Latorre, S. Steppan and H. Poinar
Journal: Molecular Ecology 11, 913–924 (2002)

DNA was extracted from an 11 700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile and the chloroplast and animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene sequences were analysed to investigate the floral environment surrounding the midden, and the identity of the midden agent. The plant sequences, together with the macroscopic identifications, suggest the presence of 13 plant families and three orders that no longer exist today at the midden locality, and thus point to a much more diverse and humid climate 11 700 years ago. The mtDNA sequences suggest the presence of at least four different vertebrates, which have been putatively identified as a camelid (vicuna), two rodents (Phyllotis and Abrocoma), and a cardinal bird (Passeriformes). To identify the midden agent, DNA was extracted from pooled faecal pellets, three small overlapping fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were amplified and multiple clones were sequenced. These results were analysed along with complete cytochrome b sequences for several modern Phyllotis species to place the midden sequence phylogenetically. The results identified the midden agent as belonging to an ancestral P. limatus. Today, P. limatus is not found at the midden locality but it can be found 100 km to the north, indicating at least a small range shift. The more extensive sampling of modern Phyllotis reinforces the suggestion that P. limatus is recently derived from a peripheral isolate.

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